The Pantheon is a great masterpiece of Roman architecture. It is a temple to all the gods, hence its name. It was built in times of Agrippa, in the I century BC, but was completed under Hadrian in the early II century after Christ.
As I said before, is a temple to all the gods. So, this temple was a great monument to both the city and to the spirituality of the Roman people. The pronaos, or front, is of Agrippa. It is octostyle with composite capitals. The frieze is the inscription of Agrippa in bronze, which says M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT, ie, Marcus Agrippa, Luciī fīlius, consul tertium, fēcit, what means Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this.
But it is the great dome that sits behind the pronaos what stands of this great temple. It was built by Hadrian. The dome is formed by a series of arcs of discharge in its start and the remainder is concrete coated by brick. The drum culminates in the dome. The drum is constituted by overlapping sectors outlined by ledges. Above the hemispherical dome rises, decorated with five concentric rows with twenty caissons each. The dome is decorated inside. Stands out the oculus, where the temple is naturally lit inside.
At the end of the VIII century before Christ, the Italian peninsula was inhabited by different peoples. The Sabines and Latins founded Rome in 753 before Christ. There were three stages. The Monarchy, ruled by etruscan kings over all; the Republic, in which the Romans made numerous colonizations and conquests, defeating in the called Punic Wars to important armies as the Carthaginians; and the Empire, starting with Augustus, that due the impossibility of governing as magnum territory, it is chosen to establish a new political system, headed by an emperor, with the territory divided into provinces.
Roman art is just an imitation and amplification of Greek and Etruscan art. In the Republic already presents its own physiognomy, since the architecture is more practical than beautiful. The main features that differentiate it from Greek art are the play of masses, the use of the arch and vault, the colossal buildings, portraits and historical relief. Introduces the Tuscan order, Doric derivative, and the Composite, mixture of Ionic and Corinthian. In buildings there is a total separation between the architecture, the constructive and decorative.
In conclusion, the Pantheon is a masterpiece of Roman architecture. Furthermore, it has been preserved almost intact, therefore it is an artwork of the Roman legacy that today we are fortunate to behold as the Roman people did centuries ago.
It is in Rome, in Italy.